5G refers to the fifth generation of cellular technology to provide broadband access. It has a standard for increasing the speed and volume of information on wireless networks. To achieve this, it relies on a set of microprocessors with antennas that quickly send packets of information between them.
The spectrum of 5G encompasses three main frequency categories. According to the FCC, recognized and licensed 5G are:Low frequency: 600 MHz, 800 MHz and 900 MHzMedium frequency: 2.5 GHz, 3.5 GHz and 3.7-4.2GHzMillimeter frequency (or high frequency): 24 GHz, 28 GHz, 37 GHz, 39 GHz and 47 GHz
Of these, the millimeter frequency stands out for its effectiveness, which has great capacity to support bandwidth, although it is more sensitive to external variables and physical obstacles. Low frequencies have better use in large urban areas, mass concentrations and rural areas.How is it different from previous technologies?
With the idea of increasing the speed of data processing, each generation of mobile technology has allowed a better signal from mobile connections. In addition, it has given competitive advantages to the countries that dominated them, as we can see below:1G (1979-1980s): It was developed in Japan and allowed mobile voice communication between cell phones.2G (1991-2000): It was developed in Finland and allowed the encryption of messages, the enabling of the GSM standard and the sending of SMS messages.3G (2001-2008): Won by Japan. It enabled voice telephony, mobile internet access, video calls and cellular TV transmission.4G (2009-2018): It was won by the U.S. It allowed voice telephony, fast internet access, video game services, high-definition and 3D TV, as well as high-resolution video conferencing.
Since the development of 3G, reaching the next generation of cellular telephony became a multi-party race, where countries that did not win became demoralized and lost competitive advantages for their telecommunications industries. Benefits that 5G will bring to users
First, 5G has lower latency than previous generations, so devices will take less time to execute an order, plus they would have fewer visible intermittencies. In practice, the answers will be seen almost instantaneously, to the extent that this will greatly benefit the emergence of autonomous vehicles, seamless virtual and augmented reality applications, as well as remotely operated devices such as robotic hands wielding scalpels.
Secondly, users will be quickly favored, as the spectrum will reach speeds of between 10 and 250 times the current ones. In the case of speeds of 20 Gbits per second, the technology will allow you to download a movie in high definition in seconds, watch 8K television, as well as watch holograms or virtual reality applications.
Speed will be driven by full duplex technology, a series of specialized circuits that ensure transmitters and devices send and receive data on the same frequency, without interfering with each other.
Microprocessors with antennas were mentioned earlier, which leads to the third benefit. These devices, the size of a medium box and also known as “small cells,” contain a technology known as “multiple input, multiple output” (MIMO), which allows cells to work in parallel with each other and densify an area that has different physical obstacles.
This benefit not only encompasses densification, but also allows to significantly expand the spatial coverage and bandwidth of the entire wireless network, so the fourth benefit is the number of devices and sensors connected simultaneously. According to current specifications, 5G could support about 20,000 connected devices in just one area equivalent to a football field, about 100 times the current capacity.
But this is not as surprising as Cisco’s calculation, which estimates that by 2030 there will be 500 billion devices connected to a wireless network — about 66 for every inhabitant on Earth today.
The above benefits are rounded off in the value that 5G will bring to the global economy, as it will create millions of jobs and, according to the European Commission, will have revenues equivalent to 225 billion euros by 2025, in addition to creating up to 114 billion euros in benefits spread across the automotive industries,of health, transport and energy.
Likewise, just as 4G allowed the expansion of Facebook and YouTube, ubiquity and the cloud, as well as the emergence of Uber and Didi, 5G will allow the development of a whole new fauna of companies that we can hardly imagine. Benefits of 5G for job creation
According to Qualcomm’s Ryan Gorostiza, the company expects 5G to create 22 million jobs globally just by building and maintaining networks. In addition, in a developed economy, for every 5G job generated by the telecommunications industry, 2.6 jobs would be created in other industries by positive effects.
Part of the positive impact will be to digitize and even transform sectors of the economy that are still offline, so the impact could also reach small cities. In addition, new jobs will be underpinned around smart cities.
But perhaps most interesting is the possibilities that 5G can bring to minorities. In different societies with socio-economic or racial inequities, less access to broadband prevents minimally equitable access to the less privileged, taking away opportunities that could change their lives.
5G would make it easier to connect remote places and better exploit both remote applications and video conferencing. In the U.S., this will benefit the Africo-American and Hispanic population, while in Mexico it would help the unemployed and the lowest deciles of the population, including the indigenous population. Benefits of 5G in education
Much has been debated around the need to retrain many workers given the advance of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. 5G may be an important part of this retraining since, for many jobs, training could be given through online courses, so people in communities with little connectivity will have access to new possibilities. This connectivity will also be enjoyed by children who had the “homework gap”, that barrier to having access to broadband at home.
Another facet that will see a relevant boost will be personalized education, since the implementation of Big Data and Machine Learning technologies will allow the findings of the analyses to be landed in punctual and more integral applications, which require great bandwidth. For example, increased data collection, personalized lessons, and adaptation to the learning style.
Image: REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch
Likewise, there will also be a revolution in the devices around the school, ranging from geolocation in journeys to and during the stay at school, devices to improve security, interactive whiteboards, 3D printers, simulations of situations, among others. Some devices already exist, but the new generation will be much more accurate, powerful and affordable. Benefits of 5G to Healthcare
The main benefit that 5G will bring in this area will be the reduction of costs per connected device, which could even bring savings to infrastructures and health systems. In this regard, there are very high expectations about the monitoring of chronic noncommunicable diseases – such as diabetes, ischemic heart disease, high blood pressure and others derived from obesity – that have exponentially raised the costs of care.
Again, the lowest deciles are those who suffer the most, so 5G will allow monitoring for more effective prevention through remote diagnosis, promotion of medication taking, monitoring of treatments and levels of the person, transmission of health data, as well as the administration of medical services. Many of them can be installed at home, which will save returns to the hospital or consultation. Benefits of 5G to transport