Our human resources teacher, José Vera, has been the speaker of this month’s #ENyDOpenClass, in which we have deepened the term motivation. José Vera, ENyD teacher
For Vera nothing is chance and nothing happens by chance. To do this, he began the videoconference talking about the Cause/Effect relationship. According to the teacher, all the actions of the human being are motivated by some cause, since people always act based on stimuli. “Every action has its reaction and, therefore, its repercussion,” said José Vera.
Motivations originate to satisfy some possible need. This need can be:Absolute or relative.Vital or superfluous.Pleasure or trivial…
On the other hand, the reasons (not the motivations) in general can be:Rational or Emotional.Self-centered or Altruistic.Attraction or Rejection.
Depending on the environment (both spatial and temporal), the motivation can be:Extrinsic.Intrinsic.Transcendent.Extrinsic Motivation:
This type of motivation is equivalent to material compensation, such as money (salary), socio-labor status, having representativeness in the environment we move, travel, car, stability, security … Intrinsic Motivation:
José Vera explained, in this type of motivation, the theory of the 16 basic desires. From a study, in which more than 6000 people participated, Steven Reiss proposed a theory that focuses on 16 basic desires that guide practically all human behavior. There are 16 basic desires that motivate our actions and define our personality. They are as follows:AcceptanceSavingFeedingSocial contactCuriosityStabilityFamilyHonorIdealismIndependenceLeisureOrderPowerSocial positionVengeanceAffective lifeTranscendent Motivation:
This type of motivation is one that encourages you to be part of something, to get involved with a task or mission. It is unselfish since it seeks the interests of the team (of the collective), so individual interests take a back seat. In addition, organization and greater individual contribution predominate.
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Transcendent motivation is based on the beliefs, values and principles of each individual. Values such as friendship, solidarity or service are what generate this attitude of benefit to others. These values give meaning to the task that the group will perform. An example would be Teresa of Calcutta.
Another type of motivation, and no less important, is self-motivation, that is, the ability to motivate oneself. According to José Vera, self-motivation is to give oneself the reasons, impulse, enthusiasm and interest sufficient to be able to provoke specific actions or a certain behavior. Five reasons to self-motivate
You must set goals so that:
1.Be forced to clarify what you want.
2.Motivate you to take action.
3.Help you filter out opportunities.
4.Help you overcome resistance.
5.Help you celebrate your success. Helping factorsConfidence.Auto.Positivism.Sense of duty.Spirit of service.Good humor.Motivation for work
Do we live to work? or do we work to live?
According to José Vera, work motivation is understood as “the set of forces that originate both within and in the environment of a human being, to initiate a certain behavior related to work and to determine its form, direction, intensity and performance.”
The teacher gave as an example the model proposed by Hackman and Oldham, which is based on the idea that the task itself is key to people’s work motivation.
This model considers five dimensions of Motivation for better individual performance in the workplace: Importance: This has been done by me.Identity: I own the process.Autonomy: I choose it and I do it by myself.Variability of personal skills.”Feedback”: I receive feedback from others, from my boss.
If we want to improve it, we must take into account the following guidelines:
1.- Improve communication between employees and the management of the company.
2.- Encourage active listening and give good feedback.
4.- Support the reconciliation between personal and work life.
5.- Recognize the (good) work of employees.
6.- Show interest in the needs of the employee.
7.- Establish constant challenges to avoid routine.
8.- Encourage the creation of teams.
9.- Evaluate performance and satisfaction.
10.- Make employees feel involved.
12.- Develop transparency.
13.- Create a sense of belonging.
14.- Establish common objectives.
15.- Know how to create a good work environment.
But, above all, Vera adds, the main thing is to find a good balance between contribution and compensation, that is, equitable compensation. And, above all, know how to align the interests and objectives of employees with those of the company.
To take into account, the motivations vary with age and with the degree of satisfaction achieved in each of the “layers” of Maslow’s pyramid. (Needs). The process of motivationThere is no single process that defines or structures so-called motivation.It all depends on the type of need that has arisen and the means available to satisfy it.
Motivation starts with an initial stimulus. Stimulus that becomes a necessity (a goal). Need (or objective) that we will seek to satisfy with means (always lawful) and that, Once satisfied, it will create a new need for us.
The contribution of theory to Human Resources Management (Talent)
Motivation has been analyzed by many theorists who are experts in the behavior of human beings and, mainly, by experts in talent management.
The most classic and well-known theory is that of Maslow’s pyramid (1954), a theory of motivation that tries to explain what drives human behavior. The pyramid consists of five levels that are ordered hierarchically according to the human needs that all people go through.
They are placed in a staggered way, so that a new need is only activated after the lower level is satisfied. Only when a person manages to satisfy the lower needs, the higher needs gradually enter, and with this the motivation to be able to satisfy them.
Another theory addressed by professor José Vera was that of Herzberg, which addresses research focused on the workplace.
Frederick Herzberg observed that when people felt good in their work, they attributed this situation to themselves, mentioning a number of characteristics or intrinsic factors such as achievements, recognition, work itself, responsibility, promotions, etc.
On the other hand, when they were dissatisfied, they tended to cite external factors such as working conditions, organizational policy, personal relationships, etc.
In this way, he found that the factors that motivate when present, are not the same as those that demotivate, so he divides the aforementioned factors into:
On the other hand, David McClelland’s theory came to group motivation into three types:AchievementPowerAffiliation
Achievement is the drive to succeed and to set high goals. The need to develop activities, but not to affiliate with other people. Pursuit of excellence and acceptance of responsibilities.
Power is the need to influence and control others and thereby gain their recognition. It means importance, prestige and “status”.
Affiliation is the desire to have friendly and close relations, to be part of a group, etc. Interest in a level of popularity, contact with others. They are not comfortable with individual work and like to work in a group and help any other people. McGregor’s “X”/”Y” theory